Santa and Mrs. Claus Make Ocean City’s Holiday Festival a Family Affair

By Donald WittkowskiThe folks at the Ocean City Historical Museum and the Ocean City Free Public Library must have some serious clout up at the North Pole.Not only were they able to get Santa Claus to make a personal appearance Sunday at the annual Ocean City Community Center Holiday Festival, they also snagged Mrs. Claus.Santa made a dramatic entrance, shimmying and dancing his way down the stairs – sorry, no chimney was available – to greet all of the adoring children eagerly awaiting his arrival.As a rock band played a thumping beat, an energetic Santa hugged and high-fived the children while welcoming everyone to a tree-lighting ceremony outside the library doors.In contrast to her rock star-like husband, Mrs. Claus sat quietly in the museum’s sedate surroundings. Her duties for the day included overseeing the sales at Mrs. Claus’ Market, a collection of vintage Christmas ornaments and other holiday memorabilia.“I’m so busy, too, making the cookies and supervising the elves,” Mrs. Claus said.Lena Graham, 3, of Pleasantville, shares a fun moment with Santa at the library.Standing in line at the library, children waited patiently for the chance to sit on Santa’s lap and tell him their Christmas wish lists.“Have you been a good little girl?” Santa asked 3-year-old Lena Graham as she approached him with wide-eyed wonder.“Yeah,” Lena replied.Then she told Santa that she wanted a Thomas the Tank Engine toy for Christmas.Her mother, Rosalind Graham, of Pleasantville, simply smiled.Scarlett Marshall, 5, a kindergartner at the Ocean City Primary School, was getting ready for Santa while standing in line with her mother, Joy Kolitsky, of Ocean City.“I want a Hatchimal, a Pink Puppy Computer, a Pinkie Pie Mermaid and a Pokemon card deck,” Scarlett rattled off in quick succession.Mrs. Claus gives a hug to 6-year-old Curren Carlis, of Marmora.Mrs. Claus also had her fair share of children visit with her in the museum. Played by Babs Stefano, a member of the museum’s board of trustees, Mrs. Claus handed out small toys and gave the kids a hug.The Holiday Festival served as a showcase for the library, the museum and other facilities housed inside the Ocean City Community Center at 17th Street and Simpson Avenue. As part of the festivities, trolleys took passengers from the community center to the newly opened Ocean City Life-Saving Museum at Fourth Street and Atlantic Avenue.With many visitors in town for the holidays, the Christmas season represents a busy time for the museum and library.“The whole month of December is kind of a crescendo leading up to First Night,” Jeffrey McGranahan, the museum’s executive director, said of Ocean City’s New Year’s Eve celebration.To capitalize on the holiday crowds, the museum is opening a new exhibit that will feature local artwork inspired by the legendary 1901 Sindia shipwreck in Ocean City’s waters. Some of the artwork will be up for sale. The exhibit is scheduled to open 7 p.m. Friday.McGranahan explained that the holiday season traditionally provides a boost in revenue generated by sales at the museum’s gift shop and special exhibits.In December 2016, the museum reaped about $3,000 in gift sales, more than one-third of its $8,000 in total revenue for the entire year, he said.Mrs. Claus’ Market, the museum’s sale of vintage Christmas collectibles, will be open Monday through Friday 10 a.m. to 7 p.m.Hopefully, Mrs. Claus – and Santa, of course – can stay around a little bit longer in Ocean City before heading back to the North Pole.Katrina Steinbacher, a 9-foot-tall stiltwalker, hands out gifts to children while entertaining the crowd. Santa is greeted by admirers during his grand entrance at the Holiday Festival. read more

James Mitchell receives 2016 Armen H. Tashjian Jr. Award

first_img Read Full Story James Mitchell, associate professor of genetics and complex diseases, is the 2016 recipient of the Armen H. Tashjian Jr. Award for Excellence in Endocrine Research. At an awards ceremony on May 17, Mitchell spoke about the “Role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in endocrine regulation of aging.” The award was presented by Gökhan S. Hotamisligil, J.S. Simmons Professor of Genetics and Metabolism and chair of the Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases.Mitchell’s research focuses on how dietary restriction can slow the aging process, improve metabolic fitness, and increase the body’s resistance to a variety of stressors. He told the audience that age is a leading risk factor for multiple conditions, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, but Mitchell said that by targeting the aging process itself, it may have an effect on all of these diseases. “The aging process is plastic; it’s really malleable by a variety of interventions, including dietary and even some pharmacological interventions,” said Mitchell.Armen Tashjian was professor of toxicology emeritus in the Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases. He led the School’s toxicology program for nearly three decades. The Tashjian Research Award recognizes promising young faculty members and fellows at the School who are pursuing innovative research ideas in basic biomedical sciences.last_img read more

Behind the ‘Thrones’

first_img Researchers use statistical technique to find evidence that Old English poem had a single author What’s in a word? The future history of English Breaking down ‘Beowulf’ Related In Israel, Divinity School students tracked the historical Jesus Where the present meets the past Ingrid Goetz ’19 credited Kirakosian and the course with helping her challenge her assumptions about the Middle Ages.“The course readings were well thought-out and encouraged me to look at both the world of fantasy and the environment around us in a new light,” said Goetz, who is concentrating in the history of art and architecture. Learning about the developments in architecture and civic society in medieval Europe “definitely encouraged me to look deeper and examine how modern life works.”At the same time that students learn about the medieval history that informs the fictional world of Westeros, they also learn how to dissect the themes and tropes of “Game of Thrones” and view them in the context of the fantasy genre over the centuries.To do this, Kirakosian focused the latter portion of the course on the humanist and romantic traditions of the 18th and 19th centuries, during which nationalism, Orientalism, and patriarchy became ingrained in popular interpretations of medieval life.“This period was a time of reimagining a past infused with magic, together with an imagining of ‘the East’ in contrast to forming Western nations,” said Kirakosian. Understanding how these themes developed and how they continue to manifest in current pop culture is necessary, she added, if we are to become “reflective consumers” of popular culture.“There is such a cultural mythology built up around the Middle Ages, from chivalry and the knights in shining armor tropes to the idea of the ‘Dark Ages’ as a time of plague and suffering,” said Goetz. “How can these exist at the same time? I’ve always wanted to interrogate and investigate that.”While students are anticipating a climactic end for “Game of Thrones,” Kirakosian hopes that more of them channel their curiosity about fantasy stories into study about the medieval period.“One reason I teach this class is to bring the Middle Ages alive, and I want to show that terms like the ‘Dark Ages’ are pejorative and incorrect,” said Kirakosian, who will teach the course in fall 2020 as part of the new General Education program. “There is an ongoing relevance of the study of the past for our ability to understand our world today, to understand ourselves and how we position ourselves to what we see happening around us and to us.” When the much-anticipated final season of “Game of Thrones” premieres Sunday on HBO, fans around the world will see some resolutions to the themes of war, romance, and family loyalty that have marked the hit show for the past eight years.The epic battle for Winterfell, a reunion of the surviving Stark children, and the fallout from the union of Jon Snow and Daenerys Targaryen and subsequent discoveries about their lineage will be at the top of the minds of many viewers, including Racha Kirakosian, an associate professor of German and the study of religion.For Kirakosian, this last season of “Game of Thrones” is an opportunity for both entertainment and scholarship. She has been teaching “The Real ‘Game of Thrones’: Culture, Society, and Religion in the Middle Ages” since 2017, using “Thrones” and other famous works of fantasy to engage students’ love of the genre while dispelling myths about medieval life and its depiction in popular culture.“‘Game of Thrones’ takes tremendous inspiration from the medieval world,” Kirakosian said, pointing to J.R.R. Tolkien’s “The Hobbit” as one of the first books to make medieval Europe the default world of fantasy storytelling. “It’s important to understand how that fantasy creation got so entangled with the history of medieval Europe, and in order to get there we need to know something about medieval Europe.”In one class, on the theme of “Learning and Philosophy,” students watch a clip from the show illustrating the lack of literacy and access to knowledge in Westeros, especially for women. Using the clip as a guide, Kirakosian explains the realities of literacy and education for medieval men and women and highlights the advent of the university system during the medieval period — a departure from the world of knowledge depicted in “Game of Thrones.”“Students are able to see something they know from the show and then look at the actual historical sources that we have from medieval Europe,” said Kirakosian. “They can then realize how complex the image actually is and get a sense for historical depth and analysis.”,The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news. Harvard course holds its own March Madness–style tournament for newly minted termslast_img read more

You are what you eat — and how you cook it

first_img Could a popular food ingredient raise the risk for diabetes and obesity? New report outlines tips for making your house a healthy one The dietary factor Just 7,500 steps a day lowers mortality in older women, study says This discovery launches an array of new questions, said Carmody. One area of inquiry will be exploring how gut microbes handle the antimicrobial properties of some raw vegetables, and how these foodborne antimicrobial compounds affect our health more broadly. Another will look at whether cooking has represented a selective pressure favoring co-evolution between humans and our resident microbes.“It’s pretty clear that the human body has been shaped by our long history of cooking, but this study suggests the human gut microbiome would have been affected, too,” Carmody said.Other authors of the paper included Kylynda Bauer, Katia Chadaideh, and Vayu Maini Rekdal of Harvard University; Corinne F. Maurice of Harvard and McGill universities; and Jordan Bisanz, Elizabeth Bess, Peter Spanogiannopoulos, and Qi Yan Ang of UCSF.“It was exciting to see that the impact of cooking we see in rodents is also relevant to humans,” said Turnbaugh in a statement from UCSF. “We’re very interested in doing larger and longer intervention and observational studies in humans to understand the impact of longer-term dietary changes.”For Carmody, it has had an even more profound effect. “As a human evolutionary biologist, I’ve reached the point where I’m not totally sure what a human is — where our biology ends and the environment begins. At the end of the day, we are holobionts — ecosystems unto ourselves — and we’ll have to understand these ecosystem interactions in order to better understand ourselves.” How we prepare food matters to us, surprisingly deeply, it turns out.Scientists have recently discovered that different diets — say, high-fat versus low-fat, or plant-based versus animal-based — can rapidly and reproducibly alter the composition and activity of the gut microbiome, where differences in the composition and activity can affect everything from metabolism to immunity to behavior.“What we didn’t know was whether the form of the food also mattered,” said Rachel Carmody, assistant professor in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology. And the answer is apparently yes. Carmody co-led teams at Harvard and the University of California, San Francisco, in an examination of how eating cooked versus raw food affected gut microbial residents, increasing our understanding of how these microorganisms have evolved with us. The research was published Monday in Nature Microbiology.Carmody has been intrigued by that question since grad school. “Food processing affects the way our bodies digest food,” she points out. “Physical techniques like grinding or pounding can disrupt cells and make their nutrients more accessible. Cooking takes this a step further because in addition to physically transforming food, it chemically transforms it as well.” By processing something that is hard to digest, she said, “You essentially externalize part of the digestive process, and therefore the remaining bits of digestion become more efficient.”Carmody served as first author and co-senior author on the paper along with Peter Turnbaugh, an associate professor of microbiology and immunology and a member of the executive leadership of the UCSF Benioff Center for Microbiome Medicine.The two researchers hypothesized that because cooking increases nutrient absorption in the small intestine, the lesser fraction of nutrients reaching the colon would affect competition among the 100 trillion or so microbes that reside there, leading to downstream effects for the host.To explore the possibilities, Carmody and Turnbaugh first focused on two types of foods that are believed to have provided the bulk of calories during most of human history: meat and starch-rich root vegetables. To test how preparation influences intestinal microbes, they fed mice raw and cooked variants of these foods and measured the resulting changes in gut microbial community composition and function. While the meat eaters’ microbes did not vary much, no matter the preparation, the sweet potato eaters’ did — by quite a lot and within hours. A subsequent experiment in which human participants ate plant-based diets served raw versus cooked confirmed that these effects also held true in human guts.Test subjects’ gut microbiome was altered greatly when they ate raw and cooked sweet potato. Photo courtesy of Rachel CarmodyTo work out the mechanisms driving these gut microbial shifts, the team conducted a range of additional experiments. Follow-up studies in which mice were fed identical chow diets that varied only in the digestibility of the starch component reproduced many of the microbiome changes seen on the raw-versus-cooked-sweet-potato diet, confirming starch digestibility as a key mechanism. Further evidence came from feeding trials using a range of vegetables, which found that the effects of cooking on the gut microbiome were most profound for starchy foods compared with nonstarchy foods like beet and carrot. Researchers also noticed that mice fed raw diets lost weight.Intriguingly, the team also uncovered evidence for a secondary mechanism: heat-induced inactivation of native foodborne antimicrobial compounds.“A growing plant produces a range of antimicrobial compounds to defend itself. When these plant foods are cooked, these compounds are largely inactivated,” Carmody said. “But when these plant foods are eaten raw, some of these antimicrobial compounds act against microbes in the gut — and some microbes are more susceptible than others.”Finally, the researchers transplanted gut microbes from mice fed raw versus cooked plant foods into a group of germ-free mice that were fed a diet of standard chow. The findings were striking and somewhat surprising: the recipients of gut microbes conditioned on raw food gained more weight and body fat than recipients of gut microbes conditioned on cooked food. The raw-food-exposed microbial community had selected for microbes that made the host hungrier and returned more of the energy that the host failed to digest on its own. So although eating raw plants provided less energy overall, associated changes to the microbial community appeared to help make up some of the slack.“Our gut microorganisms not only react to make best use of whatever is available, they’re extraordinarily adaptable,” said Carmody. Rather than evolving over millennia as humans do, the gut microbiome can change in a matter of hours to take advantage of the environment. “That adaptability might be one of the keys to us surviving or developing as a species,” she said.“Until quite recently the human food supply was highly volatile. You had seasonality to worry about. If you went out hunting, you never knew if you would be successful or come back empty-handed. Plasticity in the gut microbiome could have served as an important energetic buffer.” “As a human evolutionary biologist, I’ve reached the point where I’m not totally sure what a human is — where our biology ends and the environment begins.” — Rachel Carmody Is your home making you sick?center_img What we eat and why we eat it Walk this way Related Ph.D. students explore the culture and science of food in the Veritalk podcast The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news.last_img read more

Tix Now On Sale to See Josh Groban in The Great Comet

first_img Josh Groban View Comments Natasha, Pierre & the Great Comet of 1812 Related Shows Here’s your chance to catch Josh Groban in his Broadway debut! Tickets are now available for Natasha, Pierre and the Great Comet of 1812, starring Groban and Denée Benton. Performances will begin on October 18 at the Imperial Theatre, where it is set to open officially on November 14.In addition to Groban and Benton, the cast will include Brittain Ashford as Sonya, Gelsey Bell as Princess Mary, Nick Choksi as Dolokhov, Amber Gray as Helene, Grace McLean as Marya D and Paul Pinto as Balaga.Directed by Rachel Chavkin and featuring a book and electropop score by Dave Malloy, the show draws inspiration from a 70-page portion of Leo Tolstoy’s Russian masterpiece War and Peace. It follows Natasha (Benton), a young girl who forms a relationship with the attractive rebel Anatole (Lucas Steele) while her betrothed Andrey (Nicholas Belton) is off fighting. Andrey’s best friend Pierre (Groban) remains on high alert as the new romance blossoms.center_img Show Closed This production ended its run on Sept. 3, 2017 Star Files ‘The Great Comet’last_img read more

CUNA continues engagement as CHOICE markup proceeds

first_imgThe markup of Rep. Jeb Hensarling’s (R-Texas) Financial CHOICE Act continued Wednesday with votes on a number of amendments, most of which did not pass. During discussions, Rep. Ann Wagner (R-Mo.) cited a credit union member who wrote to her about the importance of regulatory relief for credit unions.Wagner quoted an employee of First Community CU, Chesterfield, Mo., who said she was unable to meet the mortgage needs of a longtime member looking to purchase a new house.“[The credit union] wrote to me and wants to know why they can’t give, under CFPB rules, a loan to a member in good standing, with credit that was perfect, a home mortgage loan?” said Wagner, who chairs the House Financial Services subcommittee on oversight and investigations.The committee considered, but ultimately voted down, an amendment that would remove language from the CHOICE Act that would repeal the Department of Labor’s (DOL) fiduciary rule.CUNA backs repeal of the rule, as it has concerns about the possible impact on credit union members’ ability to receive services to invest and save. continue reading » 9SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more

France confirms first case of ruinous tomato virus

first_imgTomato plants in France’s far-west Finistere region have been contaminated with a destructive virus that can lead to whole crops being wasted, the agriculture ministry said on Monday.A farm had been isolated and greenhouses full of tomatoes would be destroyed, as there is no known treatment, it said.The tomato brown rugose fruit virus, known as ToBRFV, leads to rough discoloured patches on the fruit that render it unsellable — and officials warned earlier that its spread would have “major economic consequences” for farmers. The virus, which is not harmful to humans, was first reported in 2014 at greenhouses in Israel before it spread to Europe and America.”We have received the results from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety of the samples from the Finistere and… they have been contaminated by the virus,” the ministry said.  Growers in Spain and Italy — the EU’s biggest tomato producers — have been affected, as have some in the US and Mexico, and Britain announced its first cases last July.Germany managed to eradicate an outbreak in several greenhouses by ripping out the plants and destroying them, and then treating the soil with disinfectants.France promised in early February to carry out hundreds of checks on plants and seeds, on top of regular inspections.Topics :last_img read more

Would you trade your Gold Coast home for one in the Whitsundays?

first_imgThe Burleigh Heads home was built on a narrow block.Architect Paul Uhlmann designed the three-level home.The timber property has ocean views from every level, and a special feature on each deck including a firepit, outdoor tub and pool. Each deck has a special feature.Ed Cherry of Sophie Carter Exclusive Properties is marketing the property through an expressions of interest campaign and said there was an offer on the table for Ms Naumoski to swap her Gold Coast residence for a Whitsundays property. The residence is designed to look like it’s floating out of the cliff.“I saw the block 18 months ago when I was hunting for a place to build my dream home,” the mother-of-two told the Gold Coast Bulletin when she showcased the property in August.More from news02:37Purchasers snap up every residence in the $40 million Siarn Palm Beach North1 hour ago02:37International architect Desmond Brooks selling luxury beach villa21 hours agoThe narrow block was previously home to a blue fibro shack; it took eight months for Gold Coast builder Nick McDonald’s team to construct the palatial stilt structure in its place. 45 Hill Ave, Burleigh Heads is on the market.THE owner of the Gold Coast’s first ‘floating house’ has knocked back an offer to swap her Burleigh Heads property for one in the Whitsundays.Cleverly designed to seemingly float out of the cliff, the “dream” property at 45 Hill Ave was built for Rosetta Naumoski, who bought the 405sq m block for $879,000.center_img Homeowner Rose Naumoski at her spectacular Burleigh Heads home with builder Nick McDonald. Picture Glenn Hampson Would you swap a home on the Gold Coast for one here?“There were two offers presented, the other was for a normal sale from a yacht broker from Monaco,” Mr Cherry said.“But the property is definitely back on the market.”last_img read more

The Foundation for the Development of Caribbean Children (FDCC) Launched in St. Vincent and the Grenadines

first_img Share Share LocalNews The Foundation for the Development of Caribbean Children (FDCC) Launched in St. Vincent and the Grenadines by: – July 1, 2011 By: Dr. Julian (Jules) FerdinandPhoto credit:“As an investment, Early Childhood Development programmes boast the highest rate of return on investment.”Caribbean Child Support Initiative (CCSI) brochure.The Foundation for the Development of Caribbean Children (FDCC) was launched at the Prime Minister’s Residence on Monday, June 27th, 2011.  Approximately one hundred private and public sector representatives from throughout the CARICOM region attended the event. Dr. Morella Joseph, the Programme Manager, Human Resource Development, at the Caribbean Community Secretariat, delivered the opening prayer.  Following this, the Royal St. Vincent and the Grenadines Police Band played the national anthem.  The audience then heard remarks from the FDCC’s Chairman, Dr. Didacus Jules; the Executive Director at the Bernard Van Leer Foundation, Mrs. Lisa Jordan; and Mr. Tom Olsen, Resident Resident Representative at UNICEF’s Eastern Caribbean office.  The Honourable Frederick Stephenson, Minister of National Mobilisation, Social Development, Youth, Sports and Culture of St. Vincent and the Grenadines delivered the feature address.  Dr. Julian Ferdinand, an FDCC Director, was the Master of Ceremonies for the evening’s activities and Mr. Milton Lawrence, FDCC’s Deputy Chairman, delivered the vote of thanks.Earlier in the day, many of the attendees had participated in a regional forum for health, education, social development and parenting support agencies that was held at the conference room of the National Insurance Service in Kingstown.  The forum’s focus is “Supporting the development of children zero to three – particularly the most vulnerable”.  The forum was sponsored by the Caribbean Community in partnership with the Caribbean Child Support Initiative (CCSI) Programme and the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, with support from UNICEF, the Commonwealth Secretariat, Parenting Partners Caribbean (PPC) and the University of the West Indies, and runs from June 27th to June 30th. Several of the evening’s speakers referred to Professor Maureen Samms-Vaughan’s presentation during the morning session at the forum.  Professor Samms-Vaughan is the Professor of Child Health, Development and Behaviour at the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the Mona Campus of the University of the West Indies in Jamaica.  Her presentation was entitled “Scientific evidence for the critical importance of supporting development of children zero to three, particularly the most vulnerable”.  During this presentation she   showed, among other things, how the cognitive and social development of the infant can be impaired as a result of lack of “positive stimulation” in their early environment.  Her address provided ample evidence of the need for regional governments, the private sector and non-government organisations to intensify the collaborative approach in providing social safety nets for children at risk.  She noted that “every child deserves a good life”.  Her clarion call for support initiatives reinforces the wisdom in establishing the FDCC.In his remarks, Dr. Didacus Jules noted that widespread poverty in different Caribbean countries places many children at risk for development delays.  He noted that this is evidenced by lowered health status, problems with school readiness, cognitive delays, and socio-emotional problems during childhood.  He indicated that these problems often persist into adolescence where the negative outcomes are even more pronounced.  It is indicated that children from poor households show greater likelihood to drop out of school, become pregnant and engage in crime than those from a more privileged economic background.  He noted that recent empirical evidence from research conducted in Jamaica, Barbados, the Commonwealth of Dominica and St. Kitts & Nevis, confirm that children growing up in socially and economically disadvantaged communities, where they are exposed to the deleterious effects of poor or inadequate care environments, require the intervention work that the FDCC is committed to championing.In his presentation, Dr. Jules noted that the Caribbean Child Support Initiative (CCSI), which was established by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation in 2002, continues to do outstanding work in addressing issues relevant to poor parenting practices and inadequate cognitive stimulation of young children; especially those in the zero to three year cohort who live under difficult social and economic circumstances. He highlighted the significant positive impact of the Roving Caregivers Programme (RCP).  This initiative was started in Jamaica and introduced as a model in the Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.  The RCP is an informal early childhood education programme that seeks to reach children birth to three years old who do not have access to any formal early childhood education.  The caregivers regularly visit home communities where they involve children in play activities that support their motor, perceptual, emotional and cognitive development.  In addition, the caregivers provide parents with suggestions about how best to promote children’s health, hygiene and safety.  The training in parental skills development is intensified when they hold regular parent education workshops aimed at highlighting parenting knowledge and skills.  To ensure the continuity of these noble initiatives, the CCSI has now transitioned to the FDCC; an institutional entity, a regional private foundation, where the private sector, NGOs and academia can supplement government’s role to provide quality early childhood development support services – in the interest of all our children; committed to giving our children the foundation they deserve en route to a more accomplished life.Persons desiring more information on the FDCC can visit its website at comments, criticisms & suggestions to [email protected] Sharing is caring!center_img 95 Views   no discussions Share Tweetlast_img read more

Crock Pot Apple Pie Amaranth Porridge

first_imgYield: 8 Serving Size: 1/2 cupIngredients5 medium apples (sweet or tart), cored and cut into 1 inch cubes15 large dates, pitted1 Tablespoon ground cinnamon1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg1 Tablespoon vanilla extractJuice of 1 orange (about 4 Tablespoons)2 cups amaranth1 cup milk2 1/2 cups waterPossible toppings:chopped nutsraisinshoneydried cranberriesInstructionsAdd all of the ingredients in the order listed to your crock pot, except for the toppings.Cook over low heat overnight, at least 8 hours.Serve warm with your favorite toppings.last_img