A vintage Singer Mfg. Co. trade card. Many American brands familiar in the 19th century survive today. “Westward the Star of Empire Takes Its Way,” an Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad poster. Rail systems aggressively expanded after 1865, spurring national markets that, in turn, spurred national advertising. All images courtesy of Baker Library/Harvard Business School. ‘The Art of American Advertising’ A circa-1920 Crosse & Blackwell advertisement, © Michael Nicholson/Corbis. Branding found new life in modern advertising, sometimes with a global touch. A Queen City Printing Ink Co. advertisement from The Inland Printer, Vol. 9 (October 1890-September 1891). Advances in printing technology influenced national advertising. As The New York Times noted on Oct. 14, 1894, “A pot of printer’s ink is better than the greatest gold mine.” “The 19th-century advertising formats and marketing strategies exhibited here are the precursor of everything you see today,” said Banta. Trade cards, testimonials, and brand-name souvenirs still exist, along with the sense that advertising is the first showcase of popular art. Artists, she said, flocked to the medium for the exposure it brought.At one point, for instance, “advertising posters of locomotives were popular in executive offices, and in this context were considered works of art,” Banta said. Many of these advertisements are so attractive and well done that “art” is a term applied easily. “It was challenging,” she said of choosing images and artifacts for the exhibit. “Every piece was fascinating from an artistic and documentary point of view.”A lot of 19th-century advertising seems familiar. “A surprising number of companies have survived,” said Banta. A visitor to the exhibit may be puzzled at Boston’s Hinkley Locomotive Works, but will recognize names like Singer (sewing machines), Crosse & Blackwell (sauces), and Domino’s (sugar).Still, part of the charm of the three-room exhibit rests in how it showcases brands and technologies that have passed from the scene — steam locomotives, for example. Also a thing of the past is the family carriage. (The exhibit includes a catalog illustration of the Kimball Barouche and the old American Phaeton; both look springy and fragile.) Corsets aren’t what they used to be.A certain temper of advertising language also seems to have vanished, but the exhibit recaptures it for the close reader — “vegetable pills,” “never-break corset clasps,” and the assurance of a “pectoral balsam for coughs and colds.”Luckily, archivists are busy collecting material history that still has the potency to teach and to inspire modern businesspeople. HBS has an Advertising Ephemera Collection that includes more than 8,000 trade cards. (About 1,000 have been digitized so far.) The Bates Trade Card Collection has another 500, most from Boston and Cambridge businesses.Baker Library Historical Collections also has an extensive collection of trade catalogs, most from the New England of 1870 to 1900. And there is the Baker Old Class Collection — books, pamphlets, manuals, and periodicals related to printing and promotion from the Gilded Age and after.Taken together, such collections offer a treasure house of perspective on the origins of modern advertising.“As far as we’re concerned,” said Riggle of the exhibit, “we have a hit.” A Moore’s Throat & Lung Lozenges trade card from the Advertising Ephemera Collection at Harvard Business School. Advertisements from 1865 to 1910 could pass as fine art, as some modern analogs might today. No blame will be assigned if you have never heard of the Massasoit Varnish Works or B.T. Babbitt’s Best Soap. And rest easy if you have forgotten that during the late 19th century, for the modest sum of 50 cents, you could purchase from the New York Dental Co. of 7 Tremont St. in Boston a device for the painless extraction of teeth.And yet blame and shame are all yours if sometime this month you don’t see “The Art of American Advertising,” an exhibit open through Aug. 1 in the North Lobby of the Baker Library/Bloomberg Center at Harvard Business School. The idea: illustrate the rise in America of artful, profit-making, culture-shaking advertising from 1865 to 1910.During that period of robust economic growth, a confluence of factors contributed to a boom in how products were advertised for sale. National markets were expanding fast, hastened by a rise in consumer demand. Magazines and newspapers were hungry for advertising. Businesses were beginning to embrace brand recognition to build profits. (Among the exhibit’s nine themes is “A Marketing Revolution.”) And rail systems were growing.“The railroads had a transformative effect on the U.S. economy,” said Melissa Banta, guest curator at Baker Library Historical Collections, the source of the exhibit’s artifacts. “The industry created the model for the mass production of goods and made possible the mass distribution of those goods.”At the same time, consumers had more cash. “People’s incomes were expanding,” said Christine Riggle, an HBS special collections librarian who was on the exhibition staff. Would-be customers were also “becoming visually literate,” she added, though photography would not dominate advertising until after 1910.Advances in printing technologies — better inks, papers, presses, and image-capturing plates — helped drive advertising’s reach and profits. (“A pot of printer’s ink,” The New York Times declared in 1894, “is better than the greatest gold mine.”) The race was on for more and better posters, catalogs, trade cards, brochures, and novelties — the kind of ephemera at the heart of the HBS show and of modern advertising itself.
– Advertisement – In the most demanding fixture of their Premier League season.“It was a tough decision to change the system before we play City,” he admitted afterwards. But it was largely vindicated.Liverpool were beaten 4-0 at the Etihad Stadium in July and there was a 5-0 defeat in this fixture back in 2017. Klopp has still never beaten Pep Guardiola’s side at the stadium in a Premier League fixture but the attacking approach almost blew City away early on.- Advertisement – Image:In the build-up to Manchester City’s penalty against Liverpool, Mane and Andrew Robertson were caught upfield leaving Wijnaldum exposed “I thought it made sense, that’s it,” Jurgen Klopp told Sky Sports before the game when asked about his selection. “If you want to get something here, you have to be really brave.”Faced with the decision of whether to choose long-time favourite Roberto Firmino or the in-form newcomer Diogo Jota, the Liverpool manager opted for both in a bold 4-2-4 formation.- Advertisement – Image:Sadio Mane is caught inside forcing Gini Wijnaldum to close down Kyle Walker and leave Kevin De Bruyne in space for Manchester City’s equaliser against Liverpool Firmino, playing as a centre-forward alongside Mohamed Salah, was one-on-one against Ederson within minutes. Sadio Mane found himself in space at the far post soon after. Manchester City were pinned back, they were put under pressure, and they were creaking.“Obviously, a little surprise for the opponent, the different system.” Image:Liverpool’s wide forwards were more tucked in during the second half as Klopp sought to control the half spaces “Half-time, we could adjust it,” Klopp explained.“The boys were compact again, we did not have these situations any more, City had to play a lot around the formation and these kind of things. All what we wanted.“In the game when they do not close this gap or do not close that gap, they think that it would not have happened with the other system. But the boys are just ready to listen, ready to adapt, and ready to perform, so I am really happy. It was really good football.“It is the game with the lowest number of chances that City have had against us. Even when they won the games, they had more.“The game, I liked a lot.” Gabriel Jesus’ equaliser illustrated the issue. Mane was upfield in a central position rather than in that left-midfield slot and that compelled Gini Wijnaldum to move wide to close down Kyle Walker in possession. That left De Bruyne free in the middle to feed Jesus.Over on the other flank, it was Jota caught ahead of the ball when Alisson’s kick went straight to Ilkay Gundogan. He passed to De Bruyne and they went close once more. The situation in the build-up for the penalty was slightly different. Andy Robertson was dispossessed by Walker and with Mane also out of the game having anticipated the pass, the covering Wijnaldum was left in a two-on-one situation and De Bruyne was away again.Robertson can make that ambitious run when playing in a 4-3-3 formation. Wijnaldum coming across is not such a problem when Fabinho is stationed in midfield. Asking the Dutchman to provide that protection in a two-man midfield leaves spaces vacant. FREE TO WATCH: Highlights from Manchester City’s 1-1 draw with Liverpool “That is always the big danger if you have got two in midfield and the wide players are wingers,” Jamie Carragher told Sky Sports.“If you think of the teams in the mid-1990s when you were going into Europe, and you played 4-4-2, a lot of times it’s like, ‘OK, that is great going forward, but can you get back in and help us, make us solid, make us compact’.“And that is sort of the risk and reward. A couple of times – as Jurgen Klopp says – they could not quite get back in there, that is when Kevin De Bruyne showed his class, setting up one goal, putting in a cross for Raheem Sterling, and also where the penalty came from.“But it happened very rarely.”That is because Liverpool found some of the solutions at the break. Jurgen Klopp felt it was a super game of football against Manchester City 4:20 Liverpool were worthy of their lead and it is that opening 20 minutes that will encourage Klopp that weaker sides could be beaten if they repeat this frenzied opening against others.What followed will be the concern.“For us, the biggest challenge for us tonight was for Sadio and Diogo, defending these half spaces. They are both, in their mind, very offensive players, but in these moments they have to become midfielders. These gaps, we left them open for like 10 minutes, and in these moments they got the goal and they got the penalty. That is how football is.”This was a genuine 4-2-4 in the first half and, as Klopp suggests, while that brought positives, there were also negatives.Allowing Kevin De Bruyne space proved costly. 3:00 – Advertisement – Image:Diogo Jota was caught ahead of the play in the build-up to De Bruyne’s shot Klopp is right. The expected-goals numbers show that – penalties aside – Manchester City’s chances against Liverpool on Sunday had an expected-goals value of just 0.63.That is significantly down on the numbers for the past two years and a mere fraction of the figures for the two seasons prior to that. Playing the extra attacker somewhat stifled City.“It is an offensive line-up but if everyone is doing their job, it is an even more solid defensive formation,” he added.Perhaps the worry is that it robbed Liverpool of something at times too. When Klopp points out that it is “an even more solid defensive formation”, this is likely because it becomes a four-man midfield rather than a three-man midfield given the demands on the wide midfielders.Is that the best way to utilise Mane and Jota?“It’s another goal threat for Liverpool,” said Carragher. “All the chances, it is always these four players involved, it is not one of the midfielders getting forward. It’s always about the real attacking players to get the goals for Liverpool.”Klopp has found a way to get his four forwards into the team. Finding a way to get them into their most effective positions and functioning to their maximum is the challenge now.