The new Roma signing spoke after the 3-3 draw between his team and Atalanta on Monday’s Lega Serie A fixtureFor newly signed Javier Pastore, the differences between the Italian Serie A and the French Ligue 1 are big.His Roma team fought back to be able to tie 3-3 against Atalante on Monday’s fixture.But for the former Paris Saint-Germain, this was a very crazy match.“It was a good goal, Cengiz Under gave me a smart cross and the finish went well. Fortunately, we were able to equalize eventually,” Pastore told Sky Sports Italia as reported by Football Italia on Monday night.Karsdorp reveals he had too much stress at Roma Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 The Dutch defender has been with the Gialorrossi since 2017, but he has not enjoyed his time in the Italian Lega Serie A.“I think after our goal, we got a bit too relaxed and allowed them to have the ball, but that is something we shouldn’t do.”“We came out for the second half with more intensity and managed to get it back on track. We could even have won it at the end,” he said.“My position is up to the coach, I came here happy to play wide midfield, but well aware that I had often played in a trident attack before.”“It’s certainly harder in Serie A than Ligue 1, the first two games have been such a struggle!” Pastore concluded.
Milan winger Suso has admitted that they have what it takes to become great again, suggesting that a striker like Gonzalo Higuain is what Milan were missing.”For two consecutive season, the Rossoneri finished seventh in Serie A and will be in the Europa League.“Milan have the opportunity to become great again,” Suso told Spanish paper Mundo Deportivo via Football Italia.“We signed a great striker like Higuain and I think he is what we were missing. (Coach Gennaro) Gattuso knows what we can give and this can be the perfect season to get back on track.”Serie A Betting: Match-day 3 Stuart Heath – September 14, 2019 Considering there is a number of perfect starts so early in the Serie A season, as well as a few surprisingly not-so perfect ones….Suso also hopes his form at San Siro can help him get a regular foothold in the Spain squad.“It’s nice to come home and being called up for international duty is something to be proud of, always. When a Coach includes you in his first squad, that is very important and I can only be happy with that.“Luis Enrique knows Italy and Serie A very well, so he is aware of what it’s like to play here.”
Arsenal Football Club are reportedly interested in signing AS Roma winger Cengiz Under.The Mirror reports that the Gunners have leaped ahead of neighbors and rivaled Tottenham Hotspur as well as German Bundesliga Champions, Bayern Munich, both of which are also reportedly interested in the signature of Under.The 21-year-old joined Roma from Turkish side Istanbul Basaksehir in 2017 and has impressed in Serie A.He is currently valued at around £50m by the Giallorossi but the Gunners are one of a number of clubs keeping tabs on his situation.Merson believes Arsenal should sign Sancho Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 Borussia Dortmund winger Jadon Sancho might be the perfect player to play for the Gunners, according to former England international Paul Merson.Reports in Italy suggest Unai Emery’s team are leading the chase ahead of other top European clubs should Roma decide to cash in on the Turkey international.The eternal club have become famous for improving young players and selling them at the premium, especially after the sales of Mohamed Salah and Brazilian goalkeeper, Alisson Becker to Liverpool.Under has started the season in impressive fashion, and already has two goals and four assists already this season and is likely to be open to a move to the Premier League.
Celtic striker Leigh Griffiths has hinted at returning to football after taking a break for his “mental health state”.Griffiths has taken a break from football for close to a month to seek professional help for personal issues and has dropped a major hint that he’ll soon return to play for Celtic.According to Sky Sports, the 28-year-old posted a message on social media announcing his imminent comeback.“Not long before I’m back doing all this!” he wrote on Twitter while retweeting a message from a Celtic fan with clips of him lifting trophies and scoring goals for both Celtic and Scotland.Last Sunday, he corrected the record by stating the reason for his break, saying: “Despite what has been written about me, rumored or said to you from afar, I just want to settle one thing and to make it clear once and for all,”Johnston is disappointed after being injured Manuel R. Medina – September 11, 2019 Celtic winger Mikey Johnston was disappointed to miss Scotland Under 21 national team’s victories over San Marino and Croatia, and he hopes he can return to play soon.“I am off work due to my mental health state. Not gambling, drugs, or any other issue that has been written about me since December.”“I’m putting this out there now because family and friends are being asked questions and they’ve been told to say nothing,” he explained.“But I’ll not be silenced, especially by newspapers and idiots who can write tweets and make up stories and it grows arms and legs due to people’s sad and pathetic lives.”
The donation of $103,000 is intended to cover the costs of the construction project involved in this donation, including the funding for construction of the cabin, preparation of the site, and moving and setting up the cabin and antique medical equipment at the site. A fund has been established with the Kenai Community Foundation to allow for future contributions for capital improvements and maintenance of the project. In 1967, Dr. Hansen moved to Kenai, which at the time had no hospital in the area. He began practicing medicine, bringing with him used medical equipment he had acquired in Juneau. The antique medical equipment has been saved and most recently stored by the City of Kenai. The cabin is being constructed in Nikiski, and is expected to be moved into the City in late May or early June this year near the Kenai Visitor and Cultural Center. Councilmember Jim Glendenning: “Thank you Dr. Hansen. I recall a time around 1970, at the old Pickle Hill in Soldotna, some motorcycles were going up the hill and somebody piled it all up. Someone came by with a pick-up truck and we scraped them all up and brought them to you. You fixed him up, and I guess he’s living happily ever after, I get a Christmas care every year. Probably some of those utensils you will have there might look familiar to me, I remember handing you one or two.” Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享The Kenai City Council approved an ordinance at their meeting on Wednesday to allow the City Manager to accept a donation in order to establish a Bush Doctor’s Historic Cabin/Museum from Dr. Peter Hansen and the Kenai Community Foundation. Some of the councilmembers took the opportunity prior to the vote to share stories of Dr. Hansen. Councilmember Henry Knackstedt: “I want to thank you for all of your contributions through time here, they are visible, and used. This particular building is being constructed right now, and you are funding it.”
WILMINGTON, MA — Below is a round-up of what’s going on in Wilmington on Thursday, June 14, 2018:Happening Today:Weather: Increasing clouds, with a high near 80. West wind 9 to 13 mph, with gusts as high as 26 mph.At Wilmington Town Hall: The Wilmington Recreation Commission meets at 5pm in Town Hall’s Room 9. Read the agenda HERE.In The Community: The Wilmington Minutemen Co. is hosting its annual Flag Retirement Ceremony at 7pm at the Wilmington Minuteman HQ (intersection of Rte. 62 and Woburn St., behind the Harnden Tavern).For the past year, Wilmington Minutemen has been collecting unservicable U.S. Flags and will have a short ceremony to retire by burning torn and worn US Flags. If people have flags they would like to retire, everyone is encouraged to bring them to this event. This event is open to everyone, with a special invitation to the young organizations and youth in general.For more information, please call Company Sgt. Frank West at 978-658-1754.Worn flags can be dropped off for proper retirement year around at the Wilmington Post Office and Wilmington Town Hall.In The Community: Do you like to sing? Do you enjoy performing? Come join the Merrimack Valley Chorus at one of its regular weekly rehearsals. You just might discover a passion for a cappella singing, and you’ll also make some great new friends! Open rehearsals are every Thursday at 7pm at the Wilmington Arts Center (219 Middlesex Avenue).In The Community: The Town Beach is open today. Lifeguards are on duty from 10am to 8pm. Admission is FREE for residents. Proof of residency is required. Learn more HERE.At The Library: Social Security: What You Need To Know at 7pm. [Learn more and register HERE.]At The Senior Center: Walking Group at 8am. Computer Class at 9:15am. Intermediate Bridge Group at 9:30am. Art Class at 10am. Aerobics at 10:30am. Knitting/Crocheting at 11am. Ceramics at 1pm. Game Day at 1pm. Stress Management at 1pm. [Learn more HERE.]At The Town Museum: The Wilmington Town Museum is open from 10am to 2pm.Live Music: Larry Gilbert performs at Rocco’s Restaurant & Bar (193 Main Street) beginning at 6pm. … Pianist Ricky Lauria performs at Tremezzo Ristorante (2 Lowell Street) beginning at 8pm.(NOTE: What did I miss? Let me know by commenting below, commenting on the Facebook page, or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org. I may be able to update this post.)Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email email@example.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedPUBLIC INVITED: Wilmington Flag Retirement Ceremony To Be Held On June 14In “Community”5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Friday, June 14, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”VIDEO: Watch Wilmington Minutemen’s Flag Retirement CeremonyIn “Video”
Apple AirPods with Wireless Charging Case: $155 (save $45) $999 Turo Free Echo Dot with an Insignia or Toshiba TV (save $50) Lenovo 130-15AST 15.6-inch laptop: $210 (save $90) Rylo Angela Lang/CNET Mobile Google Maps,I’m shocked — shocked! — to learn that stores are turning Labor Day into an excuse to sell stuff. Wait — no, I’m not. As much as I respect the original intent of the holiday (which became official back in 1894), to most of us, it’s just a bonus day off — one that’s blissfully tacked onto a weekend. So, yeah, stores; go ahead, run your sales. I’m listening. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Labor Day doesn’t bring out bargains to compete with the likes of Black Friday (which will be here before you know it), but there are definitely some sales worth your time.For example:We’ve rounded up the best Labor Day mattress deals.We’ve also gathered the best Labor Day laptop deals at Best Buy.The 2019 Vizio P Series Quantum is back under $999.Be sure to check out Amazon’s roughly three dozen Labor Day deals on TVs and audio. Google Express is having a big sale as well, one that includes deals on game consoles, AirPods, iPhones, laptops and more.Below I’ve rounded up a handful of individual items I consider to be the cream of the crop, followed by a handy reference guide to other Labor Day sales. Keep in mind, of course, that products may sell out at any time, even if the sale itself is still running. Note that CNET may get a share of revenue from the sale of the products featured on this page. See It See it An Echo Dot makes a fine match for any Fire edition TV, because you can use the latter to say things like, “Alexa, turn on the TV.” Right now, the 24-inch Insignia Fire TV Edition starts at just $100, while the 32-inch Toshiba Fire TV Editions is on sale for $130. Just add any Fire TV Edition to your cart, then add a third-gen Echo Dot, and presto: The latter is free. See It Apple iPhone XS $6 at Tidal Find out if your train or bus will have standing room only, or if you’ll be able to snag a seat. Drew Angerer/Getty Images Now you can know just how miserable your commute will (or won’t) be before you even get to the train station. Google Maps on Thursday rolled out a feature that predicts how crowded a train, subway or bus will be based on previous rides. Riders can see this information and then decide if they want to stick it out or wait for things to clear up. The company also launched live updates on traffic delays for buses in locations where it doesn’t already have real-time information from local transit agencies. Riders can now see if their bus will be late and how long they’ll have to wait. They’ll also get more-precise travel times based on live traffic conditions, and will be able to see where the delays are on the map. The two features roll out Thursday in around 200 cities worldwide, and are available on both Android and iOS. Sarah Tew/CNET I thought this might be a mistake, but, no, the weirdly named HP Laptop 15t Value is indeed quite the value at this price. Specs include an Intel Core i7 processor, 12GB of RAM, a 256GB solid-state drive and a 15.6-inch display. However, I strongly recommend paying an extra $50 to upgrade that display to FHD (1,920×1,080), because you’re not likely to be happy with the native 1,366×768 resolution. Mentioned Above Apple iPhone XS (64GB, space gray) Tidal 3-month family subscription: $5.99 (save $54) DJI Osmo Action camera: $261 (save $89) The Cheapskate Comments $155 at Google Express $999 Recently updated to include digital-photo-frame capabilities, the Lenovo Smart Clock brings Google Assistant goodness to your nightstand. It’s a little smaller than the Amazon Echo Show 5, but also a full $30 less (and tied with Prime Day pricing) during this Best Buy Labor Day sale. Boost Mobile Use promo code 19LABOR10 to get an unusually good deal on JBL’s interesting hybrid product — not quite headphones, and not quite a traditional speaker, but something you wear like neckphones to listen to music on the go. $90 at Daily Steals via Google Express Review • iPhone XS review, updated: A few luxury upgrades over the XR Read the AirPods review Formerly known as the Google Home Hub, Google’s Nest Hub packs a wealth of Google Assistant goodness into a 7-inch screen. At $59, this is within a buck of the best price we’ve seen. It lists for $129 and sells elsewhere in the $89-to-$99 range.This is one item of many available as part of eBay’s Labor Day Sale (which, at this writing, doesn’t specifically mention Labor Day, but that’s how it was pitched to us). Tags Sarah Tew/CNET Share your voice Google Maps for Android $210 at Best Buy $59 at eBay DJI’s answer to GoPro’s action cameras is rugged little model that’s shockproof, dustproof and waterproof down to 11 meters. It normally runs $350, but this deal drops it to $261 when you apply promo code 19LABOR10 at checkout. Sarah Tew/CNET Rylo 5.8K 360 Video Camera: $250 (save $250) Best Buy $520 at HP Other Labor Day sales you should check out Best Buy: In addition to some pretty solid MacBook deals that have been running for about a week already, Best Buy is offering up to 40% off major appliances like washers, dryers and stoves. There are also gift cards available with the purchase of select appliances. See it at Best BuyDell: Through Aug. 28, Dell is offering an extra 12% off various laptops, desktops and electronics. And check back starting Aug. 29 for a big batch of Labor Day doorbusters. See it at DellGlassesUSA: Aug. 29 – Sept. 3 only, you can save 65% on all frames with promo code labor65. See it at GlassesUSALenovo: The tech company is offering a large assortment of deals and doorbusters through Labor Day, with the promise of up to 56% off certain items — including, at this writing, the IdeaPad 730S laptop for $700 (save $300).See it at LenovoLensabl: Want to keep the frames you already love and paid for? Lensabl lets you mail them in for new lenses, based on your prescription. From now through Sept. 2 only, you can save 20% on the blue light-blocking lens option with promo code BLOCKBLUE. See it at LensablSears: Between now and Sept. 7, you can save up to 40% on appliances (plus an additional 10% if you shop online), up to 60% on mattresses, up to 50% on Craftsman products and more. The store is also offering some fairly hefty cashback bonuses. See it at SearsNote: This post was published previously and is continuously updated with new information.CNET’s Cheapskate scours the web for great deals on tech products and much more. For the latest deals and updates, follow the Cheapskate on Facebook and Twitter. Questions about the Cheapskate blog? Find the answers on our FAQ page, and find more great buys on the CNET Deals page. $999 The problem with most entry-level laptops: They come with mechanical hard drives. That makes for a mighty slow Windows experience. This Lenovo model features a 128GB solid-state drive, so it should be pretty quick to boot and load software, even with its basic processor. Plus, it has a DVD-burner! That’s not something you see in many modern laptops, especially at this price. Chris Monroe/CNET Google Nest Hub: $59 (save $70) Preview • iPhone XS is the new $1,000 iPhone X HP Laptop 15t Value: $520 (save $780) Read the Rylo camera preview Turo: Save $30 on any car rental TVs Speakers Mobile Accessories Cameras Laptops Automobiles Smart Speakers & Displays See at Turo $999 See at Amazon $60 at Best Buy JBL Soundgear wearable speaker: $90 (save $160) $299 at Amazon 2 Comments See It Though not technically a Labor Day sale, it’s happening during Labor Day sale season — and it’s too good not to share. Nationwide Distributors, via Google Express, has just about the best AirPods deal we’ve seen (when you apply promo code ZBEDWZ at checkout). This is for the second-gen AirPods with the wireless charging case. Can’t imagine these will last long at this price, so if you’re interested, act fast. Sprint Tags Share your voice Spotify and most other streaming services rely on compressed audio, which robs the listener of full fidelity. Enter Tidal, the only “major” service that delivers lossless audio — meaning at least on par with CD quality, if not better. Want to see (er, hear) the difference for yourself? Grab this excellent extended trial while you can. It’s just $6 for three months, and it’s good for up to six listeners. Read Lenovo Smart Clock review What’s cooler: A snapshot of a firework exploding in front of you, or full 360-degree video of all the fireworks and all the reactions to seeing them? Oooh, ahhh, indeed. At $250, the compact Rylo dual-lens camera is selling for its lowest price yet. And for an extra $50, you can get the bundle that includes the waterproof housing.This deal runs through Sept. 3; it usually costs $500. $261 at Daily Steals via Google Express Read DJI Osmo Action preview 7 Sarah Tew/CNET Review • The rebuilt Google Maps for Android is better than ever Lenovo Smart Clock: $59.99 (save $20) Best laptops for college students: We’ve got an affordable laptop for every student. Best live TV streaming services: Ditch your cable company but keep the live channels and DVR. Read Google Home Hub review CNET may get a commission from retail offers. Turo is kind of like Uber meets Airbnb: You borrow someone’s car, but you do all the driving. I’ve used it many times and found it a great alternative to traditional car-rental services — in part because you get to choose exactly the vehicle you want (not just, say, “midsize”) and in part because you can often do pickup and dropoff right outside baggage claim.Between now and Sept. 1, the first 300 people to check out can get $30 off any Turo rental with promo code LDW30. Amazon
LANSING – State Rep. Peter Lucido, R-Shelby Township, issued the following statement in response to the state Legislature deciding to not advance legislation involving municipal retirement health care and teacher pension plans before the end of the current state House of Representatives’ session:“It benefits everyone that the state House did not pursue major reform during the lame duck session. You can be assured I would not vote to make any changes to current municipal or teacher retiree plans, as I believe the benefits which were negotiated in good faith should be honored.“However, we must have a discussion at the state level about retirement programs for our first responders and educators for the simple reason that too many plans are underfunded and we must have an absolute and clear understanding as to why. Our current and future retirees agreed to a deal, so why are actuaries, finance managers, and local government and union leadership not keeping up their end of the deal? How is it we have certain retirement plans in one community over funded, while the next county over has its programs funded by only 60 percent or less?“This discussion will not be easy, but it has to happen as we cannot allow our local governments to go bankrupt, public services to be drastically eroded and the retirement plans for teachers, police officers, librarians, firefighters, and county road commission employees be subject to any type of cuts without an open hearing. Hopefully, we can have that in 2017.”### 09Dec Rep. Lucido seeks discussion on financing for retirement plans Categories: Lucido News,News
Growth in devices that can play back video means that more demands than ever are being placed on domestic WiFi networks. With 4K UHD TV and VR on the way, the problem is only going to get worse. Stuart Thomson looks at possible solutions.Fixed-line multi-play operators have long supported in-home WiFi as part of their broadband offering and, more recently, in-home WiFi has been used to deliver TV everywhere services. Now, with the launch of advanced TV offerings, including complete line-ups of HD – and increasingly also 4K Ultra HD – channels, supplied to an ever-expanding number of devices in the home, the burden on WiFi is becoming greater.The issue is particularly pressing for service providers as problems with WiFi connectivity account for a huge proportion of calls to their customer care centres and ultimately for people churning from their services.Charles Cheevers, chief technology officer, customer premises equipment, at technology provider Arris, says that operators must build in-home networks that can cope with the expected growth in bandwidth consumption driven by the proliferation of connected devices and the popularity of ultra-high-bandwidth applications such as virtual reality gaming.While video streaming, even of 4K UHD TV content, along with a migration of QAM video to IP will ultimately only require about 25Mbps within the home, Cheevers foresees four tipping points that could dramatically increase in-home bandwidth demand.One is the switch to UHD video over IP, leading to a fourfold growth in bandwidth. A second is uptake of wirelessly connected 8K TVs, thin enough to be wall-mounted, that will likely be wirelessly connected, avoiding the need for an ungainly set-top box to be mounted alongside them. Together with existing applications, this could require 170Mbps.The other two tipping points relate to HD and UHD virtual reality applications. The addition of HD virtual reality could require 350Mbps while full UHD virtual reality could lead to bandwidth demand over 10 times that required today for IP video – perhaps 675Mbps.Growth in demand for these high-bandwidth applications will go hand-in-hand with growth in the number of connected devices – tablets, smartphones, wireless cameras, and other devices – all of them consuming video wirelessly.WiFi architectureWith a growing need to move beyond best-effort WiFi and support the delivery of multiple streams of video to multiple devices, operators are still working out how to deliver quality assurance for in-home video distribution.For Bülent Çelebi, CEO of wireless networking specialist AirTies, operators have to move beyond straightforward solutions such as deploying modems that work in both 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands – the latter is able to deliver higher throughput and is less prone to interference, but is effective only over shorter distances – which he says is “not good enough” to solve the problem. Deploying higher-specification devices such as DOCSIS gateways with 8×8 channel configurations will be insufficient, he says.“Operators are investigating what path to go down,” says Çelebi. However, until now few operators have deployed advanced WiFi systems. Single access points situated under the staircase or out of sight in a cupboard remain the most common basis for delivering in-home connectivity – a situation that technologists in the field believe will ultimately be unsustainable.Brick walls inside homes immediately compromise the bandwidth available from WiFi. In the US, where houses are often made of wood, this is less of a problem, but even in areas where wood construction is predominant, tiling in bathrooms and heavier exterior walls can present challenges. In Europe, where brick and concrete are more widely used, the challenges are even more pronounced.The situation in the US is also exacerbated, says Çelebi, by the proliferation in the number of devices now being used to consume video within the home. “OTT streaming is not that big in Europe yet but it is in the US,” he says.Taking a basic mobile device upstairs in a home will reduce the performance of that device in playing back video.The only clear solution, says Çelebi, is to build multiple access points in the home. “In particular, you have mobile devices and people moving around inside the house, away from the main WiFi access points – this creates a perfect storm,” he says. To solve the problem operators are now deploying a minimum of two access points and often as many as six, he says. “The good news is you can keep on adding them until you get coverage everywhere,” he says. For Sky’s advanced TV deployment, Sky Q, in which AirTies was involved, the UK pay TV operator “turned all its set-top boxes to smart access points” enabling homes with multiple TVs to distribute video around the home wirelessly.While delivering the in-home network fully through wireless is the most cost-efficient way to go, some operators have successfully passed the cost of connecting access points via hybrid deployments, using Powerline or Multimedia over Cable Access (MoCA) as an in-home backbone, to their consumers. “You have cable operators in the US charging US$10 a month for premium WiFi, so they are making incremental money from it,” says Çelebi. Operators can also provide an in-home network to subscribers who trade up to higher broadband offerings as an incentive to do so.Hybrid solutionsÇelebi says that a ‘pure WiFi’ solution can currently provide about 200Mbps around the house, which, he says, “at this point is more than good enough for multiple UHD streams”. Further down the line, there may be a more pressing need for hybrid solutions, he says. However, not all of these are equal. While plumbing in Ethernet cabling is clearly the best solution available, relying on Powerline is much less reliable, he claims, because of the huge variations in bandwidth available from different sockets and the difficulty of predicting available bandwidth. For this reason, he says, Powerline is best used as a complementary backbone solution to wireless, adding in capacity to what is already available.For Çelebi, using a combination of the different technologies available should enable operators to stay ahead of the development of the broadband pipe into the home and changes in consumer expectations about available bandwidth.Wireless technology itself will get smarter and will make more use of available spectrum to improve bandwidth and performance, says Çelebi. “The next wave of innovation will focus on making use of available spectrum,” he says. The 802.11ax standard represents the next generation of the WiFi standard and will help. 802.11ax make use of time division multiplexing techniques to ensure optimal use of the available spectrum, delivering a likely fourfold improvement in bandwidth compared with the current 802.11ac standard. Use of this technology can go hand in hand with technical innovations such as AirTies’ client steering, says Çelebi, enabling slower client devices to be kept out of various bands so that they don’t drive down the speed of the network.Most agree that operators will have to invest significantly in their in-home networks. Arris’ Cheevers postulates a typical current home network based on a single WiFi access point using 2.4GHz spectrum, probably poorly located and which does not connect to low-power Internet of Things devices.Cheevers says that the ‘Gigabit home’ could involve a primary gateway – possibly an 8×8 device, and 4×4 extenders to enhance coverage, using both 2.4GHz and 5GHz spectrum. The in-home backbone could be wireless, or wired, based on Ethernet or MoCA.The need to connect IoT devices will lead to the addition of low-power radios, possibly based on the Zigbee/Thread protocol. There is also potential in the future for the use of 60GHz spectrum – part of what is known as millimetre wave band – which can deliver very high bandwidth over very short distances.To feed the network, the backbone could be built on a hybrid solution involving existing cabling, new cabling or via a pure wireless solution, says Cheevers.“We try to leverage what we have. There is coax which is more prevalent in the US. You could have a 10Gbps coax network that could feed these [extenders] without having to rewire,” he says. “Powerline is another option but it struggles to give you multi-Gigabit speeds due to interference and so on. Structured cabling is another option.” Regarding the latter, Cheevers says that there is considerable interest in the effort to create a standard, dubbed 802.3bz, that would deliver speeds over Ethernet cabling of 2.5Gbps to 5Gbps, requiring a less heavy investment than 10GbE. An alternative, he says, is to use a pure wireless solution, perhaps based on the 802.11ax standard delivered over a Mesh or 60GHz network.The future in-home network may require creativity from service providers in persuading customers to pay extra for services and to position gateway devices more centrally in the home. The two things are not unconnected. Operators have been busy working on designs that consumers would be happier to display in the open rather than hide under the staircase, but, as Cheevers points out, “the cost is not insubstantial”.For Steve Johnson, regional director for northern Europe at WiFi technology specialist Ruckus Wireless, service providers have typically sought to deploy WiFi using low-cost consumer technology platforms that provide best-effort coverage and bandwidth, with many areas within the home not covered. The use of multiple devices simultaneously is causing problems and this is only going to get worse as more consumers use more devices at the same time. “That is leading to a requirement for enterprise-class technology as against consumer-level technology,” says Johnson. “Operators are willing to invest.”For Johnson, the shared nature of WiFi means that growth in the number of internet-connected devices in the home is the key challenge. He says security of WiFi is also becoming increasingly important.Number of devicesIn-home networks are also increasingly having to cope with applications that require huge bandwidth and bandwidth at irregular intervals, but for Johnson this is less of an issue than the number of devices.“However, the biggest challenge is operator bandwidth,” he says, arguing that the bandwidth delivered to the home is generally more of a bottleneck than the WiFi network itself. Within the home, he says, the capability of technologies such as Ruckus’ own Beamflex enables the wireless signal to be focused, permitting more devices to be connected, generally without the need for additional access points in small-to-average sized homes.“Nothing frightens an operator more than moving everything to WiFi because [poor quality WiFi] is the thing that can make customers churn fastest,” says Cheevers. Video transmission requires a very high degree of reliability. The general rule, he says, is that you need to provide four times the bandwidth to the home that you want to guarantee for a particular service such as 4K UHD TV. He says that operators may try to persuade consumers to pay, directly or indirectly, for differentiated bandwidth, with premium services being privileged over other services.“If you buy a pay-per-view event and your kids are doing whatever they want elsewhere, then nothing will stop the pay-per-view because you are paying for that to be the priority and the other [uses] can be throttled a bit,” he says. “Free VoD will have a lower priority than paid for VoD – we think there are dynamics in the market that will allow us to prioritise services.”The delivery of data to an ever-growing number of devices in the home is not without its challenges. “When you start adding different applications together you have the equivalent of an enterprise network in the home,” says AirTies’ Çelebi. “However consumers don’t have their own IT department and they do have size and cost constraints.”Çelebi says that AirTies is involved in field trials that feature 25-30 devices feeding off the same network. As the Internet of Things begins to take off, things are “only going to get worse”, he says. In addition to the proliferation of devices, consumers are also becoming more interested in ultra-bandwidth-hungry applications such as virtual reality gaming, requiring huge amounts of capacity.While a number of technologists believe the time has come for operators to seriously consider investing more heavily in multiple in-home access points and extenders, others argue that there is still a lot that could be done to make existing deployments work better.Alan Marks, senior solutions marketing manager at Nokia, says that changing the physical architecture of the WiFi network only makes sense if operators know what is going on inside the network. To enable a better understanding of the in-home network, cable operators have for the last couple of years been deploying TR-069-enabled devices. TR-069 is a technical specification that enables remote management of end-user devices. More recently, operators have also started deploying TR-181, a data model-enabling specification that works in conjunction with more recent TR-069-enabled devices.“WiFi-related home networking issues are the top drivers of calls to customer care centres. What we’ve seen in the cable segment is an adoption of TR-069 remote management capabilities. Operators have been rolling out TR-069-enabled gateways that give them a more robust data model and better remote management on the LAN side of things,” says Marks. “Another thing they do after that is look more closely at the data collection and analytics piece – how to use analytics capabilities across the whole infrastructure.”Marks concedes that there is a cost associated with putting TR-181 capability in gateways but points out that this will enable operators to configure the in-home network more efficiently, including by showing subscribers how to optimise their networks without the need for an expensive truck roll. Analytics can help the operator and subscriber figure out what needs to be done, including whether there is a need for a physical reconfiguration of the network he says.Meanwhile, Jonathan Nevo Junowicz, business development manager for the Residential Clean Air project at Cisco, maintains that currently “no-one is optimising in-home WiFi”, which accounts for the vast bulk of calls to care centres. Typically these calls, which are already expensive to the operator and frustrating to the customer, result in a router being (expensively) replaced by the operator.According to Nevo Junowicz, three out of five routers returned for refurbishment are found to be in perfect condition. The problem is interference of the signal, with neighbouring WiFi clouds and indoor and outdoor units causing each other problems. The problem is even greater, he says, in the 5GHz spectrum than in the 2.4GHz range.According to Cisco’s own analysis, over half of installed residential gateways are tuned to a non-optimal channel both in the 2.4GHz an the 5GHz spectrum ranges. One in 10 gateways are transmitting on too much power, leading them to interfere with a further 15% of gateways located nearby. Overall, the density of residential gateways, small-to-medium business WiFi installations and outdoor access points are contributing to the problem.For Nevo Junowicz, operators would do well to more effectively manage their indoor networks to minimise the interference problem rather than invest in new hardware.To help solve this problem, Cisco has proposed what it describes as a Residential Clean Air cloud-based offering, designed to manage the in-home network remotely to avoid interference issues arising. He says that trials have shown that once a network was properly configured, traffic across that network increased by 30%.“The service provider, without changing the architecture of these networks, with a small client [download] can deliver the correct configuration for any given consumer premises equipment,” he says. “The ‘last meter’ problem has not been solved and optimised and most vendors have not taken care of it.” Nevo Junowicz claims that Cisco will be able to differentiate between homes that simply need a reconfiguration of their existing equipment and those that require additional extenders and access points to deliver the desired bandwidth. “This is the first time that the service provider has been able to see inside the home.”For Nevo Junowicz, cellular technologies contribute to the problems, with Bluetooth and microwave technologies active in the 2.4GHz range and LTE-U promising to colonise large sections of the 5GHz spectrum. He says that the crunch facing operators as they look to a future involving more devices hanging on the WiFi network, consuming every greater amounts of bandwidth, could be deferred significantly by solving the interference problems that exist in the home today.Arris’ Cheevers points out that legacy networks could also pose problems. He says that 802.11ax’s ability to deliver a step change in in-home bandwidth could be compromised to some extent if it has to coexist with 802.11ac. “802.11ax is four times as efficient as 802.11ac. That’s great. It gives you 400Mbps instead of 100Mbps so you have plenty of room for virtual reality and IP video services. The problem is when you mix 802.11ax with 802.11ac. It is not quite as inefficient as ‘all 802.11ac’ but there will be collisions.” This is a problem that will only be worked out over time as 802.11ac devices are phased out.Cellular technologies could also potentially cause problems, although the extent to which this is likely to be true is contentious. In the US, the telecoms regulator, the FCC, has allowed operators to use unlicensed 5GHz spectrum for LTE as LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U), which has given rise to concerns that it could seriously compromise the efficiency of WiFi networks using the same spectrum. In Europe, where regulators have insisted on a ‘listen-before-talk’ protocol to avoid this issue, the 3GPP Group has created ‘Licence Assisted Access’, whereby LTE signals will only use the spectrum in time slots when the WiFi traffic is not using it.Cellular technologyWhile cellular technology could theoretically compromise WiFi performance, the fact that the same companies that operate cellular networks generally also support WiFi makes this less likely in practice.There seems to be a consensus that cellular will not emerge as a substitute for WiFi. Further down the line there is ultra high-bandwidth 5G mobile to look forward to. For in-home networking, however, WiFi is likely to reign supreme and there will be no place for current or future cellular technologies in delivering in-home connectivity.AirTies’ Çelebi thinks WiFi will be able to provide the capacity necessary to support the emerging range of devices and applications that consumers are likely to want, and does not believe that cellular technology will have a significant role in delivering connectivity in the home. Operators will be able to manage the WiFi-based in-home network to support the devices that rely on it, he says: “The capability is there so why bring in another standard and technology? I don’t see any reason for that.”For Ruckus’s Johnson, WiFi is only going to become more, rather than less, important, with cellular technologies continuing to be challenged to provide effective in-building coverage.Implementing a major role for WiFi outside the home is more challenging. Cable operators in particular have investigated a ‘WiFi first’ approach to delivering mobile data – and voice – to their subscribers, both inside and outside the home. WiFi First can mean a number of things, however. The use of in-home networks to deliver wider public access through partitioning and multiple SSIDs has been widely discussed and implemented by a number of operators, but it meets with mixed reactions from technologists.Çelebi, for example, is extremely sceptical about the wider potential of the use of partitioned home networks to deliver public WiFi. “The first problem is that these access points are in poor places [for public WiFi] such as the study or garage. The WiFi signal has to cut across an exterior wall which might be concrete, and then someone has to walk in front of the house and make a connection – and it could be a poor connection,” he says. Such a solution will, he says, only be effective if operators use multiple frequencies and client steering with multiple access points close to the street.With over 50% of mobile traffic estimated to originate from inside the home, it could make more sense to focus on ensuring seamless roaming between cellular and WiFi networks once people go inside.In any case, while mobile companies have been effective in pressing for more and more spectrum for wireless networks, WiFi has emerged as the clear technology of choice for most things that consumers want to do in the digital home.“The World – led by Apple and Google – is going ‘WiFi First’,” says Nevo Junowicz, who adds that, just as SMS revenues were decimated by the arrival of the iPhone and all that followed, so video revenues are now running towards Netflix and voice revenues are heading to Facebook.WiFi is clearly the technology of choice to enable the digital home to reach its full potential. But this means that the fixed-line broadband service operators that provide that network as part of their overall offering of multiplay services – including TV – are going to have their work cut out to make sure that the coming wave of high bandwidth applications using these networks does not result in their call centres being swamped by angry customers, leading to a dramatic shift upwards in churn.